Bone mineral density and osteoporosis in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in NHANES: a population-based cohort study.
Bone. 2020 Aug 16;:115597 Authors: Cai S, Fan J, Zhu L, Ye J, Rao X, Fan C, Zhong Y, Li Y
OBJECTIVE: The majority of the published studies ascertaining the relationships between low bone mineral density (BMD) and mortality highlighted the elderly population with limited sample size. Our study aimed to ascertain the relationships in general population. METHODS: This study ascertained the relationships between BMD levels in femur and lumbar spine with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=15,076, mean age 48.6 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adopted to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality. RESULTS: During a 6.8-year median follow-up, 1,216 men and women in the cohort died. There was a higher risk of all-cause mortality among participants with osteoporosis compared with normal in the regions of total femur (HR=1.36, 95% CI=1.07-1.73), femur neck (HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.11-1.78), intertrochanter (HR=1.34, 95% CI=1.05-1.72), as well as overall (HR=1.36, 95% CI=1.09-1.69). Non-linear dose-response analyses showed a statistically significant L-shaped association for all-cause mortality with BMD increment in the regions of total femur, femur neck, trochanter, and intertrochanter. The protective role of higher BMD level in femur for decreased risk of cancer mortality and heart diseases mortality was more evident in male participants and female participants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results revealed that maintaining normal BMD is critical to lower the risk of mortality. The association between higher BMD level in femur and decreased risk of cancer as well as heart diseases mortality varies by gender. PMID: 32814125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]