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Delayed Denosumab Injections and Fracture Risk Among Patients With Osteoporosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jul 28;: Authors: Lyu H, Yoshida K, Zhao SS, Wei J, Zeng C, Tedeschi SK, Leder BZ, Lei G, Tang P, Solomon DH

BACKGROUND: Denosumab is effective for osteoporosis, but discontinuation leads to rapid reversal of its therapeutic effect. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk for fracture among users of denosumab who delayed subsequent doses compared with users who received doses on time. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Health Improvement Network U.K. primary care database, 2010 to 2019. PATIENTS: Persons aged 45 years or older who initiated denosumab therapy for osteoporosis. MEASUREMENTS: Observational data were used to emulate an analysis of a hypothetical trial with 3 dosing intervals: subsequent denosumab injection given within 4 weeks after the recommended date ("on time"), delay by 4 to 16 weeks ("short delay"), and delay by more than 16 weeks ("long delay"). The primary outcome was a composite of all fracture types at 6 months after the recommended date. Secondary outcomes were major osteoporotic fracture, vertebral fracture, hip fracture, and nonvertebral fracture. RESULTS: Investigators identified 2594 patients initiating denosumab therapy. The risk for composite fracture over 6 months was 27.3 in 1000 for on-time dosing, 32.2 in 1000 for short delay, and 42.4 in 1000 for long delay. Compared with on-time injections, short delay had a hazard ratio (HR) for composite fracture of 1.03 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.69) and long delay an HR of 1.44 (CI, 0.96 to 2.17) (P for trend = 0.093). For vertebral fractures, short delay had an HR of 1.48 (CI, 0.58 to 3.79) and long delay an HR of 3.91 (CI, 1.62 to 9.45). LIMITATION: Dosing schedules were not randomly assigned. CONCLUSION: Although delayed administration of subsequent denosumab doses by more than 16 weeks is associated with increased risk for vertebral fracture compared with on-time dosing, evidence is insufficient to conclude that fracture risk is increased at other anatomical sites with long delay. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Clinical Research Center for Orthopedics, Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation. PMID: 32716706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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