Effects of Daily Intake of Calcium and Vitamin D-Enriched Milk in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Nutritional Study.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018 05;27(5):561-568 Authors: Reyes-Garcia R, Mendoza N, Palacios S, Salas N, Quesada-Charneco M, Garcia-Martin A, Fonolla J, Lara-Villoslada F, Muñoz-Torres M
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D-enriched milk (with or without fructooligosaccharides [FOS]) on vitamin D, bone metabolism, and cardiovascular risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-year randomized controlled study, including 500 healthy postmenopausal women, assigned to 500 mL/day of skimmed milk to one of three groups: Low-dose (L): (120 mg/100 mL calcium, vitamin D3 30 UI/100 mL), group A: calcium and vitamin D (180 mg/100 mL and 120 UI/100 mL), and group B: calcium and vitamin D (180 mg/100 mL and 120 UI/100 mL) and FOS (5 g/L). We evaluated serum 25(OH)D, bone mineral density (BMD) by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, and biochemical data of glucose and lipid metabolism. RESULTS: After 24 months, vitamin D concentrations did not change in the control group, but increased in group A and group B, p < 0.001. We observed an increase in femoral neck BMD and an improvement in fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B 100. CONCLUSIONS: Daily intake of milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D in postmenopausal healthy women induces a significant improvement in vitamin D status, a significant increase in BMD at femoral neck, and also favorable effects on glucose and lipid profile. PMID: 29676968 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]