Effects of Orthogeriatric Care Models on Outcomes of Hip Fracture Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Calcif Tissue Int. 2021 Sep 30.doi: 10.1007/s00223-021-00913-5.
Orthogeriatrics is increasingly recommended in the care of hip fracture patients, although evidence for this model is conflicting or at least limited. Furthermore, there is no conclusive evidence on which model [geriatric medicine consultant service (GCS), geriatric medical ward with orthopedic surgeon consultant service (GW), integrated care model (ICM)] is superior. The review summarizes the effect of orthogeriatric care for hip fracture patients on length of stay (LOS), time to surgery (TTS), in-hospital mortality, 1-year mortality, 30-day readmission rate, functional outcome, complication rate, and cost. Two independent reviewers retrieved randomized controlled trials, controlled observational studies, and pre/post analyses. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Thirty-seven studies were included, totaling 37.294 patients. Orthogeriatric care significantly reduced LOS [mean difference (MD) - 1.55 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) (- 2.53; - 0.57)], but heterogeneity warrants caution in interpreting this finding. Orthogeriatrics also resulted in a 28% lower risk of in-hospital mortality [95%CI (0.56; 0.92)], a 14% lower risk of 1-year mortality [95%CI (0.76; 0.97)], and a 19% lower risk of delirium [95%CI (0.71; 0.92)]. No significant effect was observed on TTS and 30-day readmission rate. No consistent effect was found on functional outcome. Numerically lower numbers of complications were observed in orthogeriatric care, yet some complications occurred more frequently in GW and ICM. Limited data suggest orthogeriatrics is cost-effective. There is moderate quality evidence that orthogeriatrics reduces LOS, in-hospital mortality, 1-year mortality, and delirium of hip fracture patients and may reduce complications and cost, while the effect on functional outcome is inconsistent. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend one or the other type of orthogeriatric care model.