History of risedronate.
Bone. 2020 May 06;:115407 Authors: McClung MR, Ebetino FH
Herein we review the discovery, development, commercial history and legacy of risedronate or NE-58095, a potent N-containing bisphosphonate developed by scientists at the Cincinnati Miami Valley Laboratories and the Norwich Eaton Laboratories of Procter and Gamble. It is characterized by a hydroxyl substituent (R1) and a pyridyl-methylene substituent (R2) at the carbon bridging two phosphonate moieties. It was shown to have greater potency than alendronate in cell-based systems while binding affinity to bone matrix was lower than alendronate, accounting for the relatively rapid offset of bone turnover inhibition when therapy is discontinued. Risedronate was shown to significantly reduce serum alkaline phosphatase and clinical features in patients with Paget's disease and was approved for this indication, at a dose of 30 mg daily for 2 months, in 1998. Formal dose response testing for treatment of osteoporosis was not performed. In large Phase 3 studies, 5 mg risedronate daily increased bone mineral density more than did the 2.5 mg dose. As a result, the 2.5 mg dose was dropped from most of the Phase 3 studies after 12 months. The 5 mg daily dose was approved for treating and preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in 2000. The drug was subsequently approved for treating men with osteoporosis. Following the leads of other companies, weekly and monthly preparations were developed and approved, based on non-inferiority BMD studies vs the 5 mg daily oral dose as was a unique dosing regimen of 75 mg given on 2 consecutive days each month. Finally, to overcome the effect of food on limiting the already poor gastrointestinal absorption of the drug, a once-weekly oral preparation containing the chelating agent EDTA and with an enteric coating delaying dissolution until the tablet was in the small intestine was approved in 2010 to be administered after breakfast. The Alliance for Better Bone Health, a collaboration between Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals and sanofi-aventis U.S. was formed to market risedronate as Actonel® and, subsequently, Actonel-EC® or Atelvia®. These drugs are still marketed by sanofi-aventis in some countries. The sale of the pharmaceutical division of Procter & Gamble to Warner Chilcott (US) was based, in large part, on the perceived value and marketability of the risedronate drugs. When marketing targets of Warner-Chilcott were not met, the rights of risedronate were sold to Allergan USA, Inc. which never actively promoted the drug. Generic forms of risedronate were introduced into the United States in 2015 but are rarely used, although several generic forms are actively marketed in other countries. PMID: 32387834 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]