Role of Metformin on Osteoblast Differentiation in Type 2 Diabetes.
Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:9203934 Authors: Jiating L, Buyun J, Yinchang Z
Metformin, an effective hypoglycemic, can modulate different points of malignant mass, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cardiovascular diseases, tuberculosis, and nerve regeneration. Recently, the effect of metformin on bone metabolism has been analyzed. Metformin relies on organic cation transporters (OCT1), a polyspecific cell membrane of the solute carrier 22A (SLC22A) gene family, to facilitate its intracellular uptake and action on complex I of the respiratory chain of mitochondria. These changes activate the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Thus, the increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio causes a dramatic and progressive activation of insulin and lysosomes, resulting in a decrease in intracellular glucose level, which promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. AMPK also phosphorylates runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) at S118, the lineage-specific transcriptional regulators, to promote osteogenesis. Metformin phosphorylates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), stimulates endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (e/iNOS), inhibits the GSK3β/Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and promotes osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. The effect of metformin on hyperglycemia decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in collagen, and reduced serum levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) were beneficial for bone formation. Metformin has a certain effect on microangiopathy and anti-inflammation, which can induce osteoporosis, activate the activity of osteoclasts, and inhibit osteoblast activity, and has demonstrated extensive alteration in bone and mineral metabolism. The aim of this review was to elucidate the mechanisms of metformin on osteoblasts in insulin-deficient diabetes. PMID: 31886264 [PubMed - in process]